Renal pelvic dilatation is often recognized sonographically in dogs and cats, but ranges of measurements expected with different urologic conditions remain unknown. Ultrasound images of 81 dogs and 6.. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RENAL PELVIC DILATATION ON ULTRASOUND IN DOGS AND CATS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RENAL PELVIC DILATATION ON ULTRASOUND IN DOGS AND CATS D'ANJOU, MARC‐ANDRÉ; BÉDARD, AGATHE; DUNN, MARILYN E. 2011-01-01 00:00:00 Introduction H istorically , the detection of renal pelvis dilatation on ultrasound has been related to outflow obstruction, neoplasia, ectopic ureter, or. Renal pelvic dilatation is often recognized sonographically in dogs and cats, but ranges of measurements expected with different urologic conditions remain unknown. Ultrasound images of 81 dogs and 66 cats with renal pelvic dilatation were reviewed, and six groups were formed based on medical. Within the renal hilum, extending into the renal sinus, fat can be deposited (hyperechoic), especially in cats. Normally, the renal pelvis is not dilated, but a small amount of anechoic fluid can occasionally be seen; in the transverse plane, the pelvic width can measure up to 2 mm in dogs and 1.6 mm in cats. 6 FIGURE 1
D'Anjou MA, Bedard A, Dunn ME. Clinical significance of renal pelvic dilatation on ultrasound in dogs and cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2011;52(1):88-94. Geisse AL, Lowry JE, Schaeffer DJ, et al. Sonographic evaluation of urinary bladder wall thickness in normal dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1997;38:132-137 Minimal renal pelvis dilation in cats diagnosed with benign ureteral obstruction by antegrade pyelography: a retrospective study of 82 cases (2012-2018) Clinical significance of renal pelvic dilatation on ultrasound in dogs and cats. technique and clinical application in the dog and cat This retrospective study assessed the measurement of the renal pelvis of 27 cats with unilateral (n = 21) or bilateral (n = 6) ureteral obstruction before (pre-t 0) and after placement of a SUB during short- (before t 0 + 3 months) and long-term (after t 0 + 3 months) follow-up.Several qualitative ultrasound parameters were recorded for each cat
marc‐andrÉ d'anjou, agathe bÉdard, marilyn e. dunn, clinical significance of renal pelvic dilatation on ultrasound in dogs and as a method of estimating renal size in dogs, veterinary radiology & ultrasound, 10.1111/j.1740-8261 ultrasonographic evaluation of renal autografts in normal cats, veterinary radiology. Renal pelvic width is measured from the renal crest (C) to the origin of the ureter. In cats and dogs, a pelvic width of >13mm was predictive of obstruction2. Secondary to obstruction, hydronephrosis can develop. Here, urine accumulation builds pressure leading to atrophy of the renal parenchyma (Figure 7.)
The kidney in Image 5 has two other common abnormalities, pelvic dilation and mineralization. Image 5: Note the pelvic dilation and mineralization. The anechoic area in the distal third of the kidney is the dilated pelvis (asterisk). This is normally a potential space, with no visible fluid within it D'Anjou, M et al. Clinical significance of renal pelvic dilatation on ultrasound in dogs and cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2011; 52: 88-94. 9 Renal pelvis dilation Renal pelvis dilation -anechoic pelvis with near and far walls that are hyperechoic and distinc Retrospective medical record evaluation of our electronic clinical database identiﬁed 865 dogs a ected by CKD. Ten dogs with clinical, ultrasound and laboratory signs of CKD IRIS stage 1 were excluded from statistical analysis, due to the low number (n = 10). A total of 855 dogs were included in the present study This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of cats with azotaemia (serum creatinine >180 μmol/l) that had ultrasonography of the urinary tract, ultrasound images available for review and received treatment for azotaemia. Cats with pre-renal azotaemia or urethral obstruction were excluded
Dilation of the ureter and/or renal pelvis is usually apparent on ultrasonography within three to four days of obstruction. Although there is significant discussion of renal pelvic size as an indicator of UO, the presence of renal pelvic dilation (more than 1.5 to 2mm) with concurrent hydroureter raises concern for UO until proven otherwise Sonographic changes observed in experimentally induced pyelonephritis in dogs include renal pelvic and proximal ureteral dilatation, hyperechoic mucosa within the renal pelvis or proximal ureter and changes to the echogenicity of the cortex or medulla (Neuwirth et al., 1993) Ultrasound imaging may reveal renomegaly and renal pelvic dilatation. Polycythemia has been reported as a rare side-effect associated with necrotizing pyelonephritis in the dog, presumably due to increased erythropoietin levels. Urine culture may return a positive bacterial growth but whether this is renal or urinary bladder origin is debatable
Results Of 96 cytologic submissions available for review, diagnostic yield was 68%; 48% of samples were at least moderately cellular. Of 87 cases with ultrasound data, kidneys showing subcapsular renal infiltrate, diffuse renal enlargement without pelvic dilation and infiltrative/nodular change were more likely to yield diagnostic samples •Renal pelvic dilation seen in all groups •If > 13mm attributed to UO • Greatest transverse pelvic diameter • CKD 1.7 +/- 2.6mm), Pyelo 3.2 +/- 3.1mm, UO 10.5 +/- 5.5mm •Over lap between them all • 30% of normal cats had renal pelvic dilation • 66% of CKD cats had pelvic dilation • 84.6% of pyelonephritis cats had renal P Clinical significance of renal pelvic dilatation on ultrasound in dogs and cats. D'Anjou MA , Bedard A , Dunn ME Vet Radiol Ultrasound, (1):88-94 201
Pre- and post-operative renal pelvic diameter on ultrasound, fluoroscopic appearance of the bypass system and any related abnormality were recorded. Results: Eighty-one cats were included (47 unilateral, 34 bilateral bypass systems). Median preoperative renal pelvic diameter was 9 mm (range 3 to 28 mm) and median renal pelvic diameter at the. Again If underlying renal disease is suspected a Resistive Index or RI could be performed to assess for interstitial disease. Mild renal pelvic dilation. A very common finding in cats with mild, early clinical renal disease (PU/PD) or undergoing IV fluid therapy. This finding can also be present in cats, and dogs, with pyelonephritis
Because of the large variability in size between dogs of different breeds renal size traditionally has been evaluated with radiography rather than ultrasound. A normal range of 5.5 to 9.1 for kidney : aorta ratio has been proposed recently that allows objective assessment of renal size in a given dog Slightly smaller kidney size is commonly seen in older dogs and cats due to chronic renal disease. A mild increased size of the renal pelvis has been reported to be normal, secondary to intravenous fluid administration, or associated with disease condition such as pyelonephritis and ureter obstruction
Qualitative assessment of renal dysfunction through sonograms obtained post-ligation, revealed that longer the duration of urinary obstruction, greater is the degree of dilatation (and hence, pressure atrophy) of the renal pelvis (Canpolat et al., 1996; Cartee, et al., 1980; D'Anjou et al., 2011) . 11: D'Anjou MA, Bédard A, Dunn ME. Clinical significance of renal pelvic dilatation on ultrasound in dogs and cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2011 Jan-Feb;52(1):88-94. PubMed PMID: 21322393. 12: Newkirk KM, Newman SJ, White LA, Rohrbach BW, Ramsay EC. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids
renal Doppler US in adult healthy Holstein-Friesian cows and to provide reference values for renal RI and PI. Cut-off values are proposed on the basis of the results, to help clinicians and researchers distinguish normal and diseased kidney, as in humans, dogs and cats. 2. Materials and Method Clinical Features. Alport syndrome-like nephropathy is initially characterized by marked proteinuria prior to 6 months of age (Lees 2013).An increase in UPC is typically first observed between 4-6 months of age; if the dog is monitored closely, microalbuminuria can be identified prior to an increase in UPC (as early as 2 months of age in some dogs) Initially they appear hypoechoic with a dilated, anechoic renal pelvis , but as gestation progresses, the renal cortex can be differentiated from the medulla and the less dilated pelvis . However, high-resolution ultrasound imaging provides a better assessment of fetal development, allowing the identification of detailed changes in the.
Renal pelvic and ureteral ultrasonographic characteristics of cats with chronic kidney disease in comparison with normal cats, and cats with pyelonephritis or ureteral obstruction (2017) Quimby JM, Dowers K, Herndon AK, Randall EK Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 19(8) pp784-790 found that the renal pelvis (the upper end of the ureter. The CT confirmed dilation of the renal pelvis and ureter in all 7 cats, and identified additional ureteral calculi not visible by other means in three cats. The first priority in the treatment of cats with acute renal failure secondary to ureteral calculi is stabilization of any life threatening electrolyte abnormalities .5-3.5x L2). Renal sizes on ultrasound Dogs Cats Ferrets Not established; Use V/D radiograph; should be 2.5-3.5 x L2 body length 3.8-4.4cm length Diffuse renal abnormalitie
. Excretory urography may show dilatation of the renal pelvis and diverticula or decreased renal size. Vomiting and uremic gastroenteritis are less common in cats with chronic renal. Stephen R. Killick, in Clinical Ultrasound (Third Edition), 2011 Hydrosalpinges. A hydrosalpinx results when the distal end of the fallopian tube becomes occluded by chronic infection. The walls of the fallopian tube initially thicken and the tube becomes swollen and oedematous, but with continued tissue destruction, probably over several years, the walls become devoid of muscle and the whole.
1. In normal dogs, the renal cortex can be hyperechoic to the liver. 2. In normal cats, the renal cortex can be isoechoic or hyperechoic to the liver. 3. The kidney size in dogs is judged primarily by subjective evaluation. 4. The renal medulla is separated in multiple sections by the arcuate and intralobar arteries. 5 Water has a specific gravity of 1.000. A pet with kidney failure has a specific gravity of between 1.008-1.012. A specific gravity in this abnormal range is called isosthenuria. In cats with normal kidney function, the S.G. should be greater than 1.035, in dogs it should be greater than 1.025
The term pelvic bladder involves displacement of the bladder from its normal position and affected size and/or position of the urethra. This condition is usually seen in young intact female dogs with urination problems but some dogs with pelvic bladder don't show urination problems. This condition is more common in dogs than cats presumably. . An annual examination, that includes a complete blood count serum biochemistry and urinalysis, is a good method for detecting renal function
T or F: The presence of moderate to severe renal pelvic dilation should prompt consideration of ureteroliths regardles of lack of confirmation of the ureterolith by ultrasonography True T or F: Calcium oxalate and mineral nephroliths, which are the most common types of nephroliths in cats, are amenable to dissolutio Hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis occurs when a kidney has an excess of fluid due to a backup of urine, often caused by an obstruction in the upper part of the urinary tract. Kidney swelling can result, causing the part of the kidney called the renal pelvis to bulge (distend), leading to possible kidney scarring and impaired kidney function Hydronephrosis is the swelling of a kidney due to a build-up of urine. It happens when urine cannot drain out from the kidney to the bladder from a blockage or obstruction. Hydronephrosis can occur in one or both kidneys. The main function of the urinary tract is to remove wastes and fluid from the body. The urinary tract has four parts: the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and urethra. The. Neoplasms of the kidney are uncommon and represent ~0.5%-1.7% of all neoplasms in dogs. Benign neoplasms are uncommon, usually incidental findings at necropsy, and generally of little clinical significance. Adenomas, lipomas, fibromas, and papillomas have been reported Hydronephrosis describes hydrostatic dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces as a result of obstruction to urine flow downstream. Alternatively, hydroureter describes the dilation of the ureter, and hydronephroureter describes the dilation of the entire upper urinary tract (both the renal pelvicalyceal system and the ureter)
Pyelonephritis in Small Animals. Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is usually due to ascending bacteria, although hematogenous spread is possible. The organisms and predisposing causes are similar to those of bacterial cystitis. Renoliths and ureteroliths, which impede the normal flow of urine out of the renal pelvis, may be contributory A repeated renal ultrasound revealed that the ureters of both kidneys were dilated, suggesting the presence of hydronephrosis (Figure 1c, ,d). d). Only the proximal portion of the ureters of both kidneys were dilated. However, renal pelvic dilations were not clearly determined How does the renal medulla open into the renal pelvis in cats. single renal papilla. How does the renal medulla open into the renal pelvis in dogs, horses, and sheep. fused, crest-like papilla (medullary crest) many cysts involving numerous nephrons due to dilatation of numerous renal tubules; swiss cheese appearance
Ferreira A, Marwood R, BatchelorD, Maddox T, MortierJR. Prevalence and clinical significance of the medullary rim sign identified on ultrasound of feline kidneys. Vet Rec. 2020 May 16;186(16):533. doi: 10.11 Fischer Y, Wess G, Hartmann K. Perikarderguss bei einer Katzemitfeliner infektiöse Background: Renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) is recommended in evaluation of children after an initial, febrile urinary tract infection. Although it is not uncommon to observe debris within the bladder lumen on sonography, the significance of this finding is uncertain. Debris may be interpreted as an indication of ongoing infection, but. 14. D'Anjou M-A, Bédard A, Dunn ME. Clinical signiﬁcance of re-nal pelvic dilatation on ultrasound in dogs and cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2011;52:88-94. 15. Debruyn K, Paepe D, Daminet S, et al. Renal dimensions at ultra-sonography in healthy Ragdoll cats with normal kidney morphol-ogy: correlation with age, gender and bodyweight. J.
The renal pelvis is the top of the ureters (the tubes that lead to the bladder) and it may be dilated if pyelonephritis is present (this is known as pyelectasis), which should be visible on ultrasound (though this may not occur in the case of acute infections) eventually enter the renal pelvis; the renal pelvis is a funnel-shaped structure through which urine flows into the ureter (the tube between the kidney and bladder) •Kidney stones (nephroliths) are either aggregates of crystals or stones located in the renal pelvis or collecting diverticula of the kidne Compare and contrast the macroscopic anatomy of the kidneys in horses, cows, dogs, cats, pig and small ruminants Describe the topographical anatomy and peritoneal associations of all parts of the urinary system in common domestic species Describe the innervation and vascularisation of the urinary system (including species variation in the internal renal portal system) Recognise kidneys of. Note the mildly dilated right renal pelvis and the double-J catheter (arrowhead) in the renal pelvis. (c) Coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR image (repetition time msec/echo time msec = 111/4.1) shows the tortuous vascular structures with signal void (arrows) along the dilated collecting system
Ultrasound is commonly used in nephrology for diagnostic studies of the kidneys and lower urinary tract and to guide percutaneous procedures, such as insertion of hemodialysis catheters and kidney biopsy. Nephrologists must, therefore, have a thorough understanding of renal anatomy and the sonographic appearance of normal kidneys and lower urinary tract, and they must be able to recognize. Dogs and cats have two ureters. The ureter is the tube connecting the kidney to the bladder and has the responsibility of carrying urine to the bladder after it is formed in the kidney. The ureter can become obstructed by crystals, stones, blood or a combination of these substances Ultrasound evaluation of the renal pelvis in cats with ureteral obstruction treated with a subcutaneous ureteral bypass: a retrospective study of 27 cases (2010-1015) (2017) Fages J, Dunn M, Specchi S & Pey P Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 20(10) pp875-883 states that Ultrasonography appears to be an effective tool in the monitoring of. The right renal pelvis and proximal right ureter were dilated but more distally the ureteric outline was lost with leakage of contrast medium into the retro- Dog 3 peritoneal space. A retrograde double contrast urethrocys- A 4-year-old, neutered male Labrador had chronic togram conﬁrmed the thickening of the urinary bladder vomiting, weight. Abdominal ultrasound findings included moderately increased size (4.8 cm) of the left kidney with an irregular and hyperechoic edge, thickened cortical layer and decreased delimitation of the corticomedullary junction. Moderate pyelectasia was also noted without ureteral dilatation
BACKGROUND. Lymphoma is a common haematopoietic neoplasm in dogs and cats that often occurs in multicentric, gastrointestinal, mediastinal and cutaneous forms, with the primary extranodal presentation being less frequent. 1 The prevalence of primary renal lymphoma is unknown in dogs, and a small number of cases have been sporadically published in the veterinary literature. 2 On the other hand. in clinical practice (Berent, 2011). Ureteral obstruction may be the result of intraluminal, mural or extraluminal compression. It may also be classified as acute or chronic, static or dynamic, partial or complete, or by its location. In dogs and cats intraluminal obstruction is the most commo Introduction. The fetal kidneys and bladder are readily visualized during prenatal scanning due to urine collection. In the second trimester, many consider the renal pelvis dilated when the renal pelvic anteroposterior (RPAP) diameter is ≥ 4 mm 1-5.Mild pyelectasis is associated with an increased risk of associated pathology or chromosomal defects 6, 7 kidney can allow assessment of the renal parenchyma. Non-specific changes such as hyperechogenicity of the renal cortex, decreased corticomedullary demarcation (Fig.3) and dilation of the renal pelvis may be evident,and compressive or obstructive lesions such as neoplasia may also be identified. Due to lack of specificity, however
MHz) to confirm hydronephrosis and/or ureteral calculi, and to estimate the volume of the dilated pelvis and ureter. To perform the US-PAP, the kidney and the renal pelvis were approached using a standard 8.5-10 MHz micro-convex probe, (MyLab Class C©, Esaote, Firenze, Italy), which has a footprint smaller than the 13 MHz probe cats due to the mobility of their kidneys and increased risk of tube dislodgement with movement. Through either a small skin incision or under direct visualization of the kidney, the nephrostomy tube, with its stylet and sharp trocar, are advanced into the renal pelvis through the greater curvature of the kidney. Once access to the renal pelvis i -- Diagnosis. Chronic kidney disease is detected by urinalysis, including urine specific gravity (USG) to determine how well the dog is concentrating urine and for protein levels, and by a blood test showing an increase in serum creatinine, and by a biomarker test for CKD, called symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). Serum Creatinine: Higher levels of creatinine indicate a lower flow rate of. A 7-year-old castrated male Pomeranian was evaluated on emergency for diagnostic work-up and treatment for acute nonpainful paraparesis. The neurologic examination suggested a L4-S3 myelopathy, but physical examination revealed lack of femoral pulses and rectal hypothermia, as well as a grade II/VI systolic heart murmur, so ischemic neuromyopathy was suspected The renal pelvis and ureters are lined with transitional cells. These cells can change shape and stretch without breaking apart. Transitional cell cancer starts in these cells. Transitional cell cancer can form in the renal pelvis, the ureter, or both. Renal cell cancer is a more common type of kidney cancer
Renal Vein Thrombosis. Renal vein thrombosis is an unusual complication of transplantation; it occurs in less than 5% of patients and usually in the first postoperative week. Renal vein thrombosis is heralded by an abrupt cessation of urinary function and swelling and tenderness over the graft Abdominal ultrasound examinations of 20 dogs with confirmed leptospirosis were reviewed retrospectively for renal abnormalities. Three dogs had a normal ultrasound examination. The remaining 17 dogs had sonographic abnormalities of the kidneys. These abnormalities, seen either alone or in combination, included renalmegaly (n=10), pyelectasia (n=9), increased cortical echogenicity (n=15. In cats, 98% and in dogs, 50% of the stones in the ureters and kidneys are calcium oxalate, making them resistant to medical dissolution. Once an obstruction occurs, there is a decrease in renal function. The longer the obstruction is present, the greater the loss of renal function and less chance to reverse the damage Dog - bean Should be good corticomedullary definition Cortex is hypoechoic compared to the spleen Medulla is hypoechoic compared to the cortex Renal pelvis 2mm 2 What size should the kidney be? Cat - 3.7-4.4 Dog - 5.5-9.1 x aorta diameter
Balloon dilatation is minimally invasive and utilizes interventional technique via fluoroscopy and endoscopy, but can result in re-stricture in a few days to a few weeks. We have found that stenting of this nasopharyngeal region allows for a more permanent fixation and results in both dogs and cats have been extremely promising In cats with normal kidney function, the S.G. should be greater than 1.034, in dogs it should be greater than 1.025. This number is interpreted in conjunction with the BUN to help determine if the elevation in BUN is due to dehydration or kidney disease Clinical significance Ureteral stones. A kidney stone can move from the kidney and become lodged inside the ureter, which can block the flow of urine, as well as cause a sharp cramp in the back, side, or lower abdomen. Pain often comes in waves lasting up to two hours, then subsides, called renal colic
Prenatal ultrasound has led to earlier diagnosis of ureteropelvic junction obstruction, allowing earlier repair (22). In some series, dilatation of the renal pelvis was caused by primary ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 65.6%. Sonographic findings: Diagnosis is made by the measure of the renal pelvic anteroposterior diameter. There is a. Isolated rabbit kidneys were subjected to pulsatile perfusion while the renal pelvis was pressurized via the ureter. how ureteral pressure affects systolic and diastolic blood flow in larger renal arteries typically insonated during clinical renal Doppler studies. Each section of figure shows Doppler gate in conduit (segmental or arcuate. The case report describes a rare congenital anomaly, crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE), with coexistence of two other abnormalities - atypical portal vein and coccygeal vertebrae malformation in a domestic cat. The concomitance of those 3 congenital defects has not been described previously. An 8-month-old female, domestic cat suffering from chronic diarrhea was referred to the diagnostic. Case summaryThis report describes a rare case of crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE) in a cat. A mature intact male Persian cat presented with bloody nasal discharge and ascites. Diagnostic studies revealed an ectopic left kidney fused with an orthotopic right kidney and a concurrent feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) infection. The FIP was responsible for clinical signs in this cat, while.