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Nephrotic syndrome ppt MBBS

Glomerulus and nephrotic & nephritic syndrome - [PPT

NEPHORTIC SYNDROME • Nephrotic syndrome is a primary glomerular disease characterized by the following: Marked increase in protein in the urine (proteinuria) Decrease in albumin in the blood (hypoalbuminemia) Edema (The swelling (edema), can be most noticeable on the face, around the eyes, around the feet and ankles, and in the belly area (or. Histological classification Nephrotic Syndrome Minimal Change Disease Focal segmental Glomerulosclerosis Membranous Glomerulonephritis 8. Commonest cause in children 80 - 90% GN in children (20% in adults) More common in boys Only 1% lead to chronic renal failure 80% have recurrence Responds well to treatment Associations e.g. Hodgkins lymphom

Nephrotic syndrome 1. NEPHROTIC SYNDROME DR. ABHAY MANGE 2. Definition Nephrotic syndrome is a clinical complex characterized by a number of renal and extrarenal features, most prominent of which are Proteinuria (in practice > 3.0 to 3.5gm/24hrs), Hypoalbuminemia, Edema, Hypertension Hyperlipidemia, Lipiduria and Hypercoagulabilty Pathogenesis of Nephrotic syndrome The initial event is damage to capillary wall resulting in increase permeability to plasma protein. With long standing heavy proteinuria serum albumin tend to become depleted and decreased. The drop of osmotic pressure will lead to generalized edema . 56. Pathogenesis of Nephrotic syndrome 1. 2. 3 Nephrotic Syndrome(minimal Change) Management • If response with 1st episode: - Continue for total of 3 months steroids - 6 weeks daily 2mg/kg/day then - 6 weeks alternate day weaning over last 2 weeks • Subsequent episodes: - 2mg/kg/day daily until urine clear for 3 days in row - then alt days for 1 month and then rapid wea

Nephrotic Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment (1) - Nephrotic Syndrome is a kidney disorder, when filters present in the kidney drips large amount of protein from the blood into the urine, which leads to the, shortage of protein level in your body. | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view. Proteinuria and Nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment (1) - Nephrotic Syndrome is a kidney disorder, when filters present in the kidney drips large amount of protein from the blood into the urine, which leads to the, shortage of protein level in your body. | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to vie Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome Primary glomerulonephritis Minimal change disease (80% paeds cases) Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (most common cause in adults) Membranous glomerulonephritis Systemic Causes Secondary glomerulonephritis Diabetic nephropathy Sarcoidosis Autoimmune: SLE, Sjogrens Infection: Syphilis, hepatitis B, HIV Amyloidosis.

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) consists of peripheral edema, heavy proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia, often with hyperlipidemia. Patients typically present with edema and fatigue, without evidence of. Nephrotic Syndrome in Pediatric Patients 1 EPIDEMIOLOGY • In the United States, incidence of 2.7 cases per 100,000 children per year • Cumulative prevalence of 16 per 100,000 children • More common in boys than girls in younger age groups, but once adolescenc Slideshow search results for nephrotic syndrome Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults: Diagnosis and Management CHARLES KODNER, MD, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky I n nephrotic syndrome, a variety of dis-orders cause.

Nephrotic syndrome is the combination of nephrotic-range proteinuria with a low serum albumin level and edema. Nephrotic-range proteinuria is the loss of 3 grams or more per day of protein into the urine or, on a single spot urine collection, the presence of 2 g of protein per gram of urine creatinine Nephrotic syndrome is defined as the presence of proteinuria (>3.5 g/24 hours), hypoalbuminemia (<3.0 g/dL), and peripheral edema. Hyperlipidemia and thrombotic disease are also frequently seen. Despite heavy proteinuria and lipiduria, the urine contains few cells or casts. This is in contrast to.. Physical Examination. Edema is the salient feature of nephrotic syndrome and initially develops around the eyes and legs. With time, the edema becomes generalized and may be associated with an increase in weight, the development of ascites, or pleural effusions. Hematuria and hypertension manifest in a minority of patients

Nephortic syndrome - SlideShar

  1. emia (decrease in albu
  2. Childhood nephrotic syndrome is not a disease in itself; rather, it is a group of symptoms that. indicate kidney damage—particularly damage to the glomeruli, the tiny units within the kidney where blood is filtered. result in the release of too much protein from the body into the urine
  3. Relapse of nephrotic syndrome is defined as a urine protein : creatinine ratio of >2 or ≥3+ protein on urine dipstick testing for 3 consecutive days. Frequent Relapse: 2 or more relapses within 6 months of initial response, or 4 or more relapses in any 12 month period Infrequent Relapse: 1 relapse within 6 months of initial response, or 1 to 3 relapses in any 12 month perio
  4. in your blood, called hypoalbu
  5. emia, and often hyperlipidemia
  6. Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that show your kidneys are not working as well as they should. These symptoms include too much protein in your urine, not enough protein in your blood, too much fat or cholesterol in your blood, and swelling

Nephrotic syndrome - SlideShar

  1. Nephrotic syndrome is an important question asked frequently in the MBBS exam! Here are some of my notes on nephrotic syndrome, in case you wanna refer and add some extra points to yours :) Also included some memory aids and mnemonics that I use. Lemme know if it helps
  2. Manav was suffering with Nephrotic Syndrome since 18 months of age. We have been treating him at Dr Rajesh Shah's Lifeforce Homeopathy Center for 1year now and he has been improving since then. There is no protein in urine since 1 year. Manav has not shown a relapse of Nephrotic syndrome for almost a year now
  3. and often decreased levels of blood protein overall
  4. emia, and edema. In adults, the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome include focal segmental glomerulosclerosis ( FSGS) and membranous nephropathy

Glomerulus and nephrotic & nephritic syndrom

  1. The most frequent cause of the nephrotic syndrome in children. Normal appearance by light microscopy but: diffuse effacement of podocyte foot processes when viewed with . the electron microscope. Most common between the ages of 1 and 7 years but can develop at any age
  2. Nephrotic Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment - Nephrotic Syndrome is a kidney disorder, when filters present in the kidney drips large amount of protein from the blood into the urine, which leads to the, shortage of protein level in your body. | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view. Proteinuria and Nephrotic syndrome - Proteinuria.
  3. The Nephrotic Syndrome Gerald B Appel, MD Vivette D'Agati, MD Objectives -Nephrotic Syndrome • Define the nephrotic syndrome. • Review the mechanism of proteinuria. • Discuss the mechanisms of the major manifestations of the NS - edema, hyperlipidemia, thrombotic tendency • Discuss the clinical features an

Nephrotic Syndrome Vs Nephritic Syndrome Dr. T.S. Srinath Kumar MD Group Head, Narayana Hrudayalaya President, Society Emergency Medicine India Member - Special Advisory Board for Emergency Medicine, DNB Associate Editor - National Journal of Emergency Medicin Definitions of nephrotic syndrome in children 167 Table 2. Meta-analyses of RCTs of corticosteroid-sparing agents in children with FR or SD SSNS 168 Table 3. RCTs comparing corticosteroid-sparing agents in FR and SD SSNS 169 Table 4. Advantages and disadvantages of corticosteroid-sparing agents as first agent for use in FR or SD SSNS 174 Table 5 PowerPoint Presentation (PPT) of Tonsillitis - An informative powerpoint presentation on the causes and effects of Tonsillitis. USA 1 - 800 - 810 - 0661 , Global +91 98335 9855

PPT - Nephrotic Syndrome (NS) PowerPoint presentation

Nephrotic syndrome is defined as the presence of proteinuria (>3.5 g/24 hours), hypoalbuminaemia (<30 g/L), and peripheral oedema. Hyperlipidaemia and thrombotic disease are also frequently seen. Despite heavy proteinuria and lipiduria, the urine contains few cells or casts. This is in contrast t.. MBBS, MPH, FMCPaed, FWACP (Paed) in NPHS1 and TNFSF15 are associated with childhood steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome .ppt. Data. Jun 2020 the genetics of steroid-sensitive nephrotic. Nephrotic syndrome is a clinical disorder characterised by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia and oedema. Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS) is the commonest type; any child with atypical features should have an early referral to nephrology. The key acute complications are hypovolemia, infection and thrombosis

Nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is a condition involving the loss of significant volumes of protein via the kidneys (proteinuria) which results in hypoalbuminaemia.The definition of nephrotic syndrome includes both massive proteinuria (≥3.5 g/day) and hypoalbuminaemia (serum albumin ≤30 g/L). 1. Clinical features. As a result of hypoalbuminaemia, nephrotic syndrome is associated. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by the following symptoms that result from changes that occur to the small, functional structures in the kidneys, such as: Very high levels of protein in the urine. Low levels of protein in the blood (albumin) due to its loss in the urine. Tissue swelling all over the body (edema) especially in the abdomen.

Diet and Nutrition. A healthy diet for Nephrotic Syndrome patients consists of low salt, low fat, and low cholesterol, with an emphasis on fruits and vegetables. NOTE: The amount of protein and fluid a patient with Nephrotic Syndrome should have depends on the patient's current condition, age, and weight Anti-CD20 Antibodies for Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome in Children. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Nov 19. 160 (5 Pt 1):1062-7. . Ruggenenti P, et al; Rituximab in Nephrotic Syndrome of Steroid-Dependent or Frequently Relapsing Minimal Change Disease Or Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (NEMO) Study Group In infants with nephrotic syndrome, genetic testing for the NPHS1 and NPHS2 mutations may be useful. These are mutations of nephrin and podocin, respectively. In children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, testing for the NPHS2 mutation may be indicated.. In the future, novel urinary biomarkers may become available that can identify the cause and severity of nephrotic syndrome. [

Diagnosis and Management of Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults

Nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis, is defined by the presence of nephrotic-range proteinuria, edema, hyperlipidemia, and hypoalbuminemia. While nephrotic-range proteinuria in adults is characterized by protein excretion of 3.5 g or more per day, in children it is defined as protein excretion of more than 40 mg/m 2 /h or a first-morning urine. Nephrotic syndrome is the combination of nephrotic-range proteinuria with a low serum albumin level and edema. Nephrotic-range proteinuria is the loss of 3 grams or more per day of protein into. Nephrotic syndrome can affect children of any age, from infancy to adolescence, and is most commonly seen among school-aged children and adolescents. The prevalence worldwide is approximately 16 cases per 100,000 children with an incidence of 2 to 7 per 100,000 children A case of a 37-year-old man with severe hypertension and nephrotic syndrome is presented. He had a past history of hospitalization for abdominal pain, during which 2 symmetrical kidneys with normal perfusion were revealed by an abdominal CT. He also had a calf deep vein thrombosis in the past, at which time he had a prolonged partial thrombotic. the nephrotic syndrome. This occurred in 13 patients. Persistent proteinuria and/or haematuria was seen in 6 patients, acute nephritis in 2 patients and acute oliguric renal failure in 5 patients of which 4 had more than 80 percent crescents. These 4 patients as expectedhada rapidlyprogressive and fatal course. 12 patients were in renal failure.

Roger Seheult, MD of https://www.medcram.com illustrates the key differences between the nephrotic and nephritic syndromes. Topics include proteinuria, hema.. What is childhood nephrotic syndrome? Children with too much protein in their urine, sudden weight gain, and swelling in various body parts could have a condition called nephrotic syndrome. Childhood nephrotic syndrome is also called nephrosis. Nephrotic syndrome happens when tiny structures in the kidneys called glomeruli stop working properly and let too much protein ente Commonest cause of edema in children: Generalized: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Localized: Allergic reaction. Most children will have a benign diagnosis and self-limited course. General measures for treatment include management of primary disease, bed rest, Na+ restriction and Diuretic administration Summary - Glomerulonephritis vs Nephrotic Syndrome Both nephritic syndrome and nephrotic syndrome are renal disorders which share few common symptoms. But the fine line which makes them two separate disease entities is drawn across the degree of proteinuria, If the protein loss is higher than 3.5g/day then it is nephrotic syndrome and vice versa Kapiolani Medical Center For Women And Children. 1319 Punahou Street, Honolulu, HI 96826. Return to Univ. Hawaii Dept. Pediatrics Home Page. View this text online or download the entire 2004 first edition text for your tablet, computer, or mobile device. Second edition text will be available for download when it is completed in late 2015

The primary nephrotic syndrome in children. Identification of patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome from initial response to prednisone. A report of the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children. J Pediatr 1981; 98:561. White RH, Glasgow EF, Mills RJ. Clinicopathological study of nephrotic syndrome in childhood. Lancet 1970; 1. Nephrotic syndrome is a condition of damage in the kidneys characterized by a loss of protein into the urine. That loss of protein in the bloodstream causes fluid to leak out of the vessels causing massive edema in the body. We want to treat the cause and give diuretics. We also want them to make sure they're getting enough protein in their diet Nephrotic syndrome is urinary excretion of > 3 g of protein/day due to a glomerular disorder plus edema and hypoalbuminemia. It is more common among children and has both primary and secondary causes. Diagnosis is by determination of urine protein/creatinine ratio in a random urine sample or measurement of urinary protein in a 24-hour urine collection; cause is diagnosed based on history.

MBBS, FWACPaed, Cert.Nephrol(SA) Paed, Mphil(Paed Nephrol VISUAL ABSTRACT Common risk variants in NPHS1 and TNFSF15 are associated with childhood steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome .ppt. Nephrotic syndrome is rare - about 1 in 50,000 children get nephrotic syndrome each year. It affects more boys than girls. It affects more boys than girls. It can happen in people of all ages, though often starts when a child is between 2 and 5 years old

INTRODUCTION — The majority of children who present with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) have minimal change disease (MCD), which is generally responsive to steroid therapy. As a result, empirical steroid therapy is given to most children who present with idiopathic NS. However, approximately 10 to 20 percent of patients fail to respond to initial steroid treatment Tapia C, Bashir K. Nephrotic Syndrome. 2019 Jan.. Wu MY, Chen CS, Yiang GT, Cheng PW, Chen YL, Chiu HC, et al. The Emerging Role of Pathogenesis of IgA Nephropathy Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome. Childhood nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that occur because of damage to the kidneys. Nephrotic syndrome can occur in children at any age, but usually is found in children between 18 months and 5 years of age Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder where the body releases too much protein into the urine. This reduces the amount of protein in your blood and affects how your body balances water

'nephrotic syndrome' on SlideShar

Nephrotic syndrome is not a specific disease, but the name given to the set of problems that can arise if the kidneys become damaged. One of the main jobs of the kidneys is to filter the blood. This allows the body to pass waste products, extra fluid and salts through the urine. The glomeruli are the parts of the kidney where this happens Nephrotic syndrome can be primary, being a disease specific to the kidneys, or it can be secondary, being a renal manifestation of a systemic general illness.In all cases, injury to glomeruli is an essential feature.The most common sign is excess fluid in the body due to the serum hypoalbuminemia Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of levamisole in maintaining remission of proteinuria in children with frequent relapsing and steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome (FR/SDNS). Methods: This observational study on 81 children with FR /SDNS was carried out from June 2007 - June 2017 at The Kidney Center-Postgraduate Training Institute, Karachi-Pakistan Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome NKF meeting, 2007 Noon conference lecture for Residents, Sodium Disorders, 2007 Incidence of Thrombosis and Central Venous Catheter Tip Position Regional ACP meeting, 200

Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by the following symptoms that result from changes that occur to the small, functional filters in the kidneys, such as: Very high levels of protein in the urine. Low levels of protein in the blood due to its loss in the urine ANKLE SWELLING History A 72-year-old man goes to his general practitioner (GP) complaining of painless swelling of both legs which he first noted approximately 2 months ago. The swelling started at the ankles but now his legs, thighs and genitals are swollen. His face is puffy in the mornings on getting up. His weight is up by about 10 kg over the previous 3 months

Nephrotic Syndrome: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology

Nephrotic Syndrome PPT Presentation - A PowerPoint presentation include brief description about entire disease condition. Start Consultation Now! USA 1 - 800 - 810 - 0661 , Global +91 98335 9855 Bahan Kuliah Interna I - Nephrotic Syndrome.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. MBBS Pathology-High-Yield Topics Nephrotic syndrome. SMF Ilmu Penyakit Dalam 2015 SPECTRUM DISEASES IN NEPHROLOGY Water,electrolyte,acid-base disorders Urinary infections Nephrolithiasis Glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, tubulointerstitial nephritis Hypertension Acute renal failure Chronic renal failure Dialysis Kidney transplant Clinical Presentations of Glomerular Disease Asymptomatic Proteinuria 150 mg to 3 g per day. 1 Childhood nephrotic syndrome - diagnosis and management.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online Nephrotic/itic Syndrome PPT. Presentation Summary : Nephrotic proteinuria will be protein +++ on the dip. As mentioned earlier, any pt with oedema should have a urine dip. Microscopy will help show rbc casts i

Markers of kidney damage (nephrotic syndrome, nephritic syndrome, tubular syndromes, urinary tract symptoms, asymptomatic urinalysis abnormalities, asymptomatic radiologic abnormalities, hypertension due to kidney disease) G2. 60-89. PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by 12CHAPTER Nephrotic Syndrome Rasheed Gbadegesin and William E. Smoyer Nephrotic syndrome is a common type of kidney disease seen in children. Historically, Roelans is credited with the fi rst clinical description of nephrotic syndrome in the late fi f-teenth century, whereas Zuinger later provided a detaile Background: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is manifested by presence of pitting oedema, profound proteinuria in excess of 3.5 g/day, serum albumin levels of less than 3.0 g/dL and hypercholesterolemia. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and clinical presentation of nephrotic syndrome in patients coming to a tertiary care hospital

Risk of relapse after meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in

Evaluation of nephrotic syndrome - Differential diagnosis

PowerPoint Presentation Description This template is the property of PosterPresentations.com. Call us if you need help with this poster template._x000d_ 1-866-649-3004 _x000d_ (c)PosterPresentations.co Dental Management of Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome-A Report of 2 cases Meghna Padubidri*, Neha Pawar**, Neeta Padmawar**,Asha Nara***, Sourabh Joshi****, Viddyasagar Mopagar***** Abstract Nephrotic syndr ome is a nonspecific kidney disor der characterized by thr ee signs of disease: lar ge pr oteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema 5 Pathophysiology (contd.) Normal pleural fluid 0.1 to 0.2 ml/kg Clear Low protein (1.0 to 1.5 g/dl) < 1500 nucleated cells / L 61% to 77% monocytes-macrophages 9 to 30% mesothelial cells 7% to 11% lymphocytes 2% neutrophils 0% eosinophils pH > 7.60 Pathophysiology (contd.) Mechanism of abnormal pleural fluid formation Increasedhydrostaticpressure(CHF)Increased hydrostatic pressure (CHF Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder that causes your body to pass too much protein in your urine. Chapters 3 and 4 of the guideline focus on the management of nephrotic syndrome in children aged 1-18 years. Heavy proteinuria- when urinary protein excretion more than 40mg/m2/hour or 1g/m2/24hours. Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome Clinical Presentation: History

Nephrotic syndrome happens when tiny structures in the kidneys called glomeruli (gluh-MARE-you-lie) stop working properly and let too much protein enter the kidneys. In kids, this is usually due to a kidney condition called minimal change disease that affects the glomeruli. Nephrotic syndrome is more common in boys than girls, especially in kids younger than age 5 The kidneys of people with nephrotic syndrome don't work properly, causing large amounts of protein to leak into their urine. It can affect people of any age, but is often first seen in children aged between two and five years. The loss of protein can cause a range of problems, including swelling of body tissues and a greater chance of catching infections The nephrotic syndrome is defined by a urinary protein level exceeding 3.5 g per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area per day. At the turn of the century, clinicians distinguished a nephritic syndrome of i..

CONSENSUS STATEMENT: MANAGEMENT OF IDIOPATHIC NEPHROTIC SYNDROME IN CHILDHOOD Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in childhood is diagnosed by the presence of significant proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia and oedema, the underlying cause of which is unknown. Although said to be uncommon in the West at about 3 new cases per 100,000 child population, data suggests that Asians have a higher incidence at. 283706312-Nephrotic-Syndrome.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) FSGS is a rare disease that attacks the kidney's filtering units (glomeruli) and causes serious scarring, leading to permanent kidney damage and even kidney failure. FSGS is one of the causes of a serious condition known as Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome Kidney Urinary Syste

Nephritic vs. Nephrotic Syndrome. Nephritic syndrome is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli (glomerulonephritis) and renal dysfunction. The most common cause is immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, also known as Berger's disease, but other causes include postinfectious glomerulonephritis and lupus nephritis Generalized edema is a major presenting clinical feature of children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) exemplified by such primary conditions as minimal change disease (MCD). In these children with classical NS and marked proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, the ensuing tendency to hypovolemia triggers compensatory physiological mechanisms, which enhance renal sodium (Na+) and water retention; this is. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia. Minimal change disease, the most common cause in childhood, generally responds to corticosteroids, although most patients experience disease relapses. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is usually resista Nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis, is defined by the presence of nephrotic-range proteinuria, edema, hyperlipidemia, and hypoalbuminemia.Nephrotic-range proteinuria in a 24-hour urine collection is defined in adults as 3.5 g of protein or more per 24 hours, whereas in children it is defined as protein excretion of more than 40 mg/m 2 /hr to account for varying body sizes throughout childhood Primary nephrotic syndrome is the most common type in children. Some children can have something called congenital nephrotic syndrome, which happens in the first 3 months of life

Ascitic fluid analysis

Nephrotic syndrome is an alteration of kidney function caused by increased glomerular basement membrane permeability to plasma protein (albumin). Altered glomerular permeability result in characteristic symptoms of gross proteinuria, generalized edema (anasarca), hypoalbuminemia, oliguria, and increased serum lipid level (hyperlipidemia) Minimal change disease (MCD) is a major cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS), characterized by intense proteinuria leading to edema and intravascular volume depletion. In adults, it accounts for approximately 15% of patients with idiopathic NS, reaching a much higher percentage at younger ages, up to 70%-90% in children >1 year of age. In the pediatric setting, a renal biopsy is. Nephrotic syndrome is the most common glomerular disease in childhood. The prevalence is 12-16 per 100,000 children aged under 16 [].The reported annual incidence in children varies between 1.2 and 3.5 per 100,000 per year in Western Europe [2,3,4], 4.7 per 100,000 per year worldwide [] and up to 6.5 per 100,000 per year in Japan [].Although more than 85% of children with nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is a condition that causes the kidneys to leak large amounts of protein into the urine. This can lead to a range of problems, including swelling of body tissues and a greater chance of catching infections. Although nephrotic syndrome can affect people of any age, it's usually first diagnosed in children aged between 2 and 5.