Root (wilt of coconut control measures)

COCONUT GARDENS Coconut root (wilt) disease is not lethal; but it debilitates the production potential of the palms. The disease is caused by Mycoplasma -like organisms. Though no therapeutic control of the disease is available till date, it has been possible to evolve a technology to increase the productivity of the diseased palms Coconut root (wilt) is a non-lethal debilitating disease and the affected palms survive for a long period giving a reasonably good yield. The root (wilt) affected palms are susceptible to diseases like leaf rot and pests like rhinoceros beetle and red palm weevil. Control measures Application of 50 g Borax at half-yearly intervals (Feb-Mar. Control of root (wilt) disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera) with micronutrients, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid

Coconut Tirunelveli. The symptoms look similar to that of TANJORE WILT. There is sudden attack found in many trees. Which is the best method to control the spread of the disease? What are all the management measures? stem bleeding. crown drooping ‹ ›. Insecticides or fungicides are not effective on root wilt-affected palms. No curative or control measures have yet been found out and genomic studies on the most vulnerable stage of the disease..

Knowledge Based Information on Coconut :: Planting Seasons

Control of root (wilt) disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera

Control Measures Apply balanced doses of fertilizer at the rate of 0.34 kg N, 0.17 kg P and 0.68 kg K/ palm /year in the form of urea, rock phosphate and muriate of potash respectively (average management). For good management apply N, P and K at the rate of 0.5 kg N, 0.32 kg P, and 1.2kg K/palm/year Root feeding in coconut trees to manage Ganoderma wilt Fungicide mixture containing Aureofungin- sol 2 g +1 g Copper sulphate in 100ml water or Hexaconazole @3ml/100ml of water/palm/quarter and micronutrient has to be prepared Control measures include chipping off the infected tissues, wound dressing and root feeding with 5% Calyxin and application of neem cake along with antagonistic fungi 1ike Trichoderma. Mahali or fruit rot Shedding of female flowers (buttons) and immature nuts are the symptoms of the disease

Coconut Tanjore wil

  1. Efficient management of palms suspected to be affected by coconut root (wilt) disease demands control of all pests and diseases and imparting natural resistance and health to the palms through proper manuring and agronomic practices. A package of management practices for the effective management of root (wilt) disease is given below: 1
  2. Root wilt remains a serious concern for coconut farmers in Kerala and has been spreading to other States. Adoption of inter-crop pattern with the use of new varieties of coconut palms was.
  3. ent leaf scars

Mycostop can be used as soil spray or in drench (2gram/10 square meters) before or immediately after planting vegetables, fruits, and microgreens as a preventive measure. Apply plenty of water with application to move Mycostop into the root zone of plants. This acts as a biological defense against the fungi causing Fusarium wilt The coconut root (wilt) disease (CRWD) became a serious concern for coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivation in coastal region of India, especially southern state like Kerala. For which, India looses a considerable economic loss of about 968 million nuts, annually Control of Root (Wilt) Disease of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) with Micronutrients, Phenolic Compounds, and Ascorbic Acid. R. Snehi Dwivedi, Scientist S-2, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Regional Station, Kayangulam, Krishnapuram-690 533, Kerala, India. B Identifying Bacterial Wilt's Damage Host Plants. One of the important things to note about bacterial wilt is that it affects a wide array of plants, most of which are from the Solanaceae family. It affects plants in more than 33 families and across 200 species. The potato family is the most susceptible

The biology of coconut palm and the association of phytoplasma with the disease cause hindrance in screening of coconut cultivars for resistance to root (wilt) disease under controlled conditions. Field level evaluation of germplasm for identifying genotypes resistant/tolerant to phytoplasma has been reported earlier in sesame (Singh et al. 2007 ) Root feeding for the control of coconut Black headed caterpillar: Select a fresh and live root, cut sharply at an angle and insert the root in the insecticidal solution containing monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml + water 10 ml in a 7 x 10 cm polythene bag. Secure the bag tightly to the root with a cotton thread The first step in managing any of the several diseases caused by Phytophthora spp. is to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Although Phytophthora is a recognized disease problem in the Pacific Northwest, it has been misdiagnosed half the time in Oregon. 10 A wide variety of cultural and chemical controls can be implemented for Phytophthora problems

Root wilt disease proves a tough nut to crack - The Hind

  1. Management of Fusarium wilt of chickpea is difficult to achieve and no single control measure is fully effective. Cur-rently, the use of resistant cultivars appears to be the most practi-cal and economically efficient control measure for management of Fusarium wilt of chickpea and is also a key component in IDM programs (19,21,22)
  2. Still other phylogenetically distinct phytoplasmas have been associated with coconut diseases elsewhere that include Kalimantan wilt in Indonesia (Warokka et al., 2006), coconut yellow decline in Malaysia (Nejat et al., 2009a, b, 2012), coconut (root) wilt (Manimekalai et al., 2010) and yellow leaf disease of Areca catechu (Ramaswamy et al.
  3. Check your soil pH and maintain a soil pH of 6.8 or higher, which can help prevent clubroot. Amend the soil with lime if necessary. While a high pH is recommended against clubroot, it can cause boron deficiency. Boron is a micronutrient that can be added as a foliar spray or in the transplanting water
  4. Control of root (wilt) disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera) with micronutrients, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid. Dwivedi RS, Amma SK, Mathew C, Ray PK. Plant Disease, 01 Sep 1980, 64(9): 843-844 AGR: IND80127233 . Share this article Share with email Share with twitter.
  5. Symptoms, Treatment, and Control of Fusarium Wilt Disease. The wilting, yellowing and dropping of leaves that lead to plant death in your garden (or landscape) may be the result of Fusarium wilt.
  6. Once a plant has a disease, there is no fungicide, that's why preventative measures are so important. The diagnosis of verticillium wilt is tricky, too, because the symptoms are different in every plant species, and wilting can have many other causes, such as fusarium wilt , bacterial wilt, root rot, or drought or excessive soil moisture
  7. Root rot is a disease that attacks the roots of trees growing in wet or damp soil. This decaying disease can cut the life short of just about any type of tree or plant and has symptoms similar to other diseases and pest problems, like poor growth, wilted leaves, early leaf drop, branch dieback, and eventual death

Coconut diseases and their management - Kisan Suvidh

If club root is present you may want to solarize the soil.* Control susceptible weeds — mustard, radish, shepherd's purse — that may be infected to reduce potential buildup of the disease. Carefully remove infected plants and sterilize garden tools (one part bleach to 4 parts water) after use Thrips, order Thysanoptera, are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings. They feed by puncturing the epidermal (outer) layer of host tissue and sucking out the cell contents, which results in stippling, discolored flecking, or silvering of the leaf surface. Thrips feeding is usually accompanied by black varnishlike flecks of frass (excrement) How to Identify Root Rot . The reason that root rot is so hard to detect in a timely manner is that it is developing underground, out of sight. Despite the name, root rot, gardeners usually spot signs of the disease in the plant's leaves, not its roots. By then, unfortunately, the damage has already been done A number of pests—including several kinds of scale, palm aphid, spider mites, mealybugs, palm weevils, and caterpillars—are occasionally found, but usually do not require control measures. Coconut scale occasionally may cause extensive damage, and heavy infestations should be controlled by appropriate measures

Microscopic coconut mites will cause nuts to have a rough, corky texture. Heavy mite feeding results in deformed coconuts. Coconut black beetles have been a cause for concern in some areas where they burrow between leaf sheaths and eat the soft foliage tissue. Using an iron beetle hook or a pheromone trap can control these beetles India Kerala wilt disease IV-C (disputed) C. nucifera Edwin and Mohankumar, 2007a Disputed by Manimekalai et al. (2010) and Mehdi et al. (2012) India Root (wilt) disease XI-A XI-B XIV C. nucifera Manimekalai et al., 2014c; Yadav et al., 2015 Sri Lanka Weligama coconut leaf wilt disease (WCLWD) Ca. P.oryzae XI C. nucifera Perera et al., 2012. Fusarium wilt in front group of heirloom tomatoes; resistant variety in back. There are many varieties with resistance to Fusarium wilt.Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has three races; race 1, race 2, and race 3. Some tomato varieties may be resistant to one race, yet completely susceptible to another

Occassionally mealy bug, rat and slug also become trouble some. Bud rot and leaf rot and root wilt can cause severe damage to palms. One should be very alert to notice the symptoms of any post and take the suitable control measures. Close planting should be avoided plantation should be kept weed free and clean Control of the disease by fungicides is impossible and the only means to protect bananas is to prevent the fungus from spreading into disease-free fields through preventive measures, or by developing and planting resistant varieties. Because of the wide host-range of TR4, many bananas grown as food crop and for local or international markets. Disease control in tomato transplants produced in Georgia and Florida. Plant Disease 76:651-656. Ji, P., M. T. Momol, S. M. Olson, and P. M. Pradhanang. 2005. Evaluation of thymol as biofumigant for control of bacterial wilt of tomato under field conditions. Plant Disease 89:497-500. Kucharek, T. 1998. Bacterial wilt of row crops in Florida. 9 p

In the case of drought and wilt pathogens, plants display a negative interaction where the R. solanacearum wilt is favored by high soil moisture, and the incidence of wilt under low soil moisture is reportedly reduced. As one of the measures to control R. solanacearum infection in fields, the use of well drained and leveled fields is recommended Alliances for Action webinar, Sustainable coconut production: The way forward, Thursday 2nd July 2020, 10am (AST) Virtual Training Conference Tuesday 14 July 2020 - Fusarium wilt of Musaceae, Tropical Race 4: Diagnosis, biosecurity, and phytosanitary measures Root Wads Root wads are a portion of the trunk of a tree attached to its root mass. They are driven into the stream-bank and orientated upstream at a 90° angle. They are used to protect a stream-bank by deflecting currents away from the bank. They also provide structural support to the stream-bank, and habitat for fish and wildlife The important diseases of chick pea are wilt, sclerotinia blight, grey mold, rust and Ascochyta blight. Symptoms of these diseases and their suitable control measures are given below: 1. Wilt of Chickpea. The main cause of this disease is a fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f.Sp. ciceri through other fungi are also associated with this disease Time control efforts according to the target pest's biology for best results. If you have questions, call us at 1-800-827-2847. Pest Borer Control. Trapping and monitoring adults should be started early and continued throughout the season. Sticky traps and pheromone traps can be used in different settings to attract and trap specific insects.

In the recent past, coconut trees grown in the southern part of India have been largely affected by mite (Acerai guerreronis) attack and the repercussion of the mite attack is worse than the attack of other pests and debilitating diseases, such as root wilt, gonoderma wilt, Thanjavur wilt and tatipaka disease. This has tremendously affected the. • Tu, J. C. 2004. An integrated control measure for Pythium root rot of hydroponically grown greenhouse cucumbers. Acta Horticulturae 644: 571-574. • Zamir, P.K. and R. Yip. 2003. Biological control of damping off and root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum on greenhouse cucumbers. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 25: 411-417. Updated by: Siva. Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) affects all species. This is a microscopic soil worm living in hot, humid and airy soils that penetrates roots and causes growth decrease and plant death. It also enables other noxious soil organisms to enter in the plant. Root-knot nematodes are plant-parasitic nematodes from the genus Meloidogyne Infected plants with root-knot nematodes may show various degrees of stunting and chlorosis. Root development is reduced, and vascular systems of infected tissues are disrupted, resulting in the poor flow of water and nutrients from the roots (or pegs) to the shoot. Infected plants tend to wilt under drought conditions. Management: i Target Treatments To The Pests Being ControlledOnce a pest population has been identified and monitored, Beneficial Insects or other Organisms can be introduced to control and suppress the continued growth of that pest population. Biological controls come in the form of beneficial insects, fungi, bacteria and more. Examples of these include Mite Predators for Spider Mites, Bacillus.

Fusarium Wilt: Treatment, Control, and Prevention Tip

Ralstonia solanacearum (biovar2, race3) is the causal agent of bacterial wilt and this quarantine phytopathogen is responsible for massive losses in several commercially important crops. Biological control of this pathogen might become a suitable plant protection measure in areas where R. solanacearum is endemic. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus velezensis (B63) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Bacterial wilt diagnosis in the field can be done easily. Cut a piece of the stem 2 to 3 cm long from the base. Suspend the cut stem in clear water in a glass container. Hold the stem with an improvised tong to maintain a vertical position. Within a few seconds, milky bacterial threads are discharged from the cut stem dry weather, acidic soil and root-knot nematodes. The Fusarium wilt fungus may be introduced to soils in several ways, such as through wind, water, wildlife or equipment. These fungi become established readily in most soils and can remain in the soil for years. The most effective means of control is the use of resistant . varieties (Table 1)

Bacterial Wilt Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatmen

The northern root-knot nematode produces small, discrete galls while the southern, Japanese and peanut root-knot nematodes produce large galls and massive root swellings (Figure 17). Infected plants are stunted, appear yellow or pale green in color and wilt easily, even when soil moisture is adequate CONTROL The Fusarium wilt fungi are difficult to control. Schemes to eradicate the pathogen are limited by the ability of the fungi to survive in soil for long periods, with or wit hout a host plant, and the colonization of the vascular tissues within a plant. The first step in managing Fusarium wilt is proper diagnosis Control measures. For controlling this disease effectively, spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture, uniformly throughout the crop. Bacterial Wilt. The mild curling and dropping of leaves from the base leaves. Which further spreads to the upwards and finally to the pseudostem of plants. Control measures

Coconut: Diseases and Symptoms — Vikaspedi

What the Problem Looks Like Probable Cause Control Measures Small, pale green, wilted leaves. Sparse foliage. New leaves don't grow or are small with poor color. Small branches die back at top of tree. avocado root rot ‐ Fumigate small spots of disease. If detected early; otherwise, cut off the tree at ground level an Different measurement techniques have been used to study the root systems of the coconut in several countries, which makes direct comparisons difficult. In a detailed study in the Philippines, Magnaye ( Reference Magnaye 1969 ) recorded roots extending laterally 5 m from the base of the trunk, and to a depth of 2 m Root rot; Leaves brown, shrivel, and fall; The stem tops dry out and curl over in a tell-tale shepherd's crook How to Prevent or Control Fusarium Wilt in Basil. There's no cure for Fusarium wilt and it spreads like wildfire. So the best method of control is prevention. One key method of prevention is to purchase a resistant variety of.

Biocontrol of Ganoderma wilt of coconut palm

Maintaining records on the disease history of fields helps avoid disease problems and the timely use of control measures. Seed health - Seed contamination, particularly for bacterial diseases such as black rot, is an important means of introducing diseases into non-infested fields This publication will address the most common problems associated with chiles grown in New Mexico. In addition to some specific control measures for diseases, there is a checklist of general control practices for growing disease-free chile. Table of Contents. Wilt and Root Rot Diseases. Seedling Disease. Leaf Diseases. Fruit Rots. Viruses. Plant Protection. Plant protection is the science and practice of managing plant diseases and pests that damage agricultural and horticulture crops. All crops grown in Dakshina Kannada are included horticulture and agriculture crops (Arecanut, coconut, pepper, cashew, bhendi, paddy, jasmine, banana, mango etc.,).The crops in field are exposed to many factors

Online Plant Clini

  1. Sudden wilt is a common and serious disease of rockmelon and honeydew melon in Queensland and some parts of Western Australia. Sudden wilt can cause serious capsicum crop losses during hot, dry weather or when crops are grown in plastic mulch, which results in soil temperatures greater than 35ºC. In North Queensland, losses are most likely in.
  2. Banana wilt: Another fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, causes Panama disease or Banana Wilt (Fusarium wilt). It begins in the soil and travels to the root system, then enters the corm and passes into the pseudostem. Leaves begin to yellow, starting with the oldest leaves and moving in towards the center of the banana. This disease is lethal
  3. Nematode Management in Tomatoes, Peppers, and Eggplant. 1. J. W. Noling 2. Plant parasitic nematodes are small microscopic roundworms that live in the soil and attack the roots of plants. Crop production problems induced by nematodes, therefore, generally occur as a result of root dysfunction, reducing rooting volume and foraging and.
  4. Heymons, 1915. Mealybugs are insects in the family Pseudococcidae, unarmored scale insects found in moist, warm habitats. Many species are considered pests as they feed on plant juices of greenhouse plants, house plants and subtropical trees and also act as a vector for several plant diseases. Some ants live in symbiotic relationships with them.
  5. o Real which are more resistant to the disease. There are no fungicides that can control verticillium wilt once it is in the soil

Neem oil root drench can protect the plant's roots and prevents root rot. It Works as a Bactericide. It prevents fire blight, a bacterial disease that makes plants appear wilt like they have been burned. To use neem oil in this case, spray it on trees when it is still in its dormant stage. It is a Fungicid Effective control depends on differentiating between abiotic or biotic (living) causes of plant problems. Many times it is a combination of both. Insects often transmit diseases by carrying viruses, phytoplasmas and certain bacteria, such as those causing Stewart's wilt of corn and bacterial wilt of cucumbers and squash

IDM for Thanjavur wilt in Coconut caused by the fungus

Dry root rot caused by the fungus Fusarium solani f.phaseoli directly affects only the roots of the plants; however, the parts above ground are stunted and may turn yellow, wilt, and die before the plants mature.If infection is only moderate and rather general, the plants remain alive until harvest; but the whole field will have the appearance of being undernourished as from a lack of nitrogen The water mould causes root rots, infects the stem causing a wilt, and also attacks the fruits. general, this is not a common disease, but in wet areas where it is known to occur attention should be paid to cultural control measures. Before planting: Spread coconut fronds or use another mulch to prevent heavy rains from splashing soil. Nematode-control measures will significantly reduce root-knot and other nematodes from the garden site. The continued combined use of rotation, resistance, and cultural practices will minimize nematode damage and, over time, will reduce the nematodes to low population levels so that a serious problem is not likely to occur Figure 2.Control strategies of Fusarium wilt of banana at different epidemic stages. In the absence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), exclusion measures must be used to prevent the pathogen entrance.At the first incursion of Foc, containment measures must be rapidly initiated.Once Foc is established, containment measures must be continued, and integrated disease management can be. Plant essential oils have potential to control bacterial wilt by eliminating the disease-causing bacteria in field soil. The results of a study by Paret (2010, see References at bottom of this page) show that palmarosa and lemongrass oils were effective in significantly reducing the bacterial wilt pathogen in both laboratory and greenhouse studies


The root-knot galls are an integral part of the root, are firmer, and typically measure between one and 20 millimeters across. This indicates the variety has some resistance to Verticillium wilt, Fusarium wilt, and nematodes. Multiple Ways to Control Root-Knot Nematodes more details). Bacterial wilt of tomato is caused by either race 1 or race 3 of R. solanacearum and, rarely, by race 2. Race 1 is endemic in the United States and can cause bacterial wilt on several major crops such as eggplant, pepper, potato, tobacco and tomato Cultural control: • Rotations with non-host crops (cereal grains) will limit the potential for damage to subsequent vegetable crops. Chemical control: • Fungicides may be effective if applied to young plants that could be threatened during cool, wet summers. Sclerotinia Rot The Sclerotinia fungus affects a wide variety of crop plants Prevent oak wilt! When possible, prune oaks in winter. Especially avoid pruning mid-April to mid-July. Immediately seal wounds on oaks damaged during the growing season. Don't move firewood. History and range of oak wilt. Oak wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Bretziella fagacearum, was first reported in Michigan in the 1970s. It is now found.

KAU Package of Practices Recommendations: Crops, 2011

  1. ated soil. The nightshade family of plants are highly susceptible to fusarium wilt attacks, and so are hundreds of other plants, flowers, and vegetables
  2. FUSARIUM WILT. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis causes Fusarium wilt, a lethal vascular disease of Canary Island date palm. The fungus destroys the vascular tissue of the palm, leading to decreased water uptake, wilt, and death. Host: Different forms of Fusarium oxysporum exist, and they typically are host-species-specific. The form in California, and referred to as forma.
  3. The wilt bacterium is able to survive for periods up to 2 to 3 years in bare fallow soils, and for longer periods in soils cropped to non-solanaceous crops. Preventing bacterial wilt. Use the following control measures to help prevent bacterial wilt: Rotate crops with pastures, cereals and non-solanaceous crops for periods of more than 5 years
  4. Symptoms of root and crown rots often begin with wilting of leaves and poor growth. Wilt is caused by the pathogen infecting and damaging the root system, which causes a decrease in water taken up into vascular tissues of the upper plant parts. Splashing water and irrigation runoff can spread these pathogens from plant to plant
  5. The Wilting of Garden Phlox. Brilliant color can be hard to come by in the late summer garden, making phlox (Phlox paniculata), with its blooms that can last into the beginning of autumn, a.
  6. Oak Wilt Treatment. The most effective oak wilt control measure is prevention. There is no treatment method to cure infected trees. Trees and their roots infected with oak wilt should be professionally removed and destroyed (preferably by fire) before the disease has a chance to spread

CPCRI measures help check spread of root-wilt disease

  1. Armillaria Root Rot. Armillaria root rot is a fungal disease that affects hundreds of species of woody plants, including forest and shade trees. Armillaria is not one single species but refers to over 30 different species. The fungus primarily spreads through root-to-root transmission, and death of the tree being either sudden or gradual
  2. Let us take a look at the Root system of the Coconut Palm Trees. The Root System of Coconut Palm Tree. Coconut Plam trees are grown for various commercial purposes. Coconut is used as a fruit and oil while the Palm fronds are used for decoration. The roots of the Coconut tree thrive on sandy soil and moisture like other Palm tree species
  3. Effective control measures, based on the application of various chemicals, have been devised for the leaf diseases but other than precautionary cultural operations, there are no such effective and practical control measures for the root and stem diseases
  4. ation of soils, reducing populations below damaging levels where infestations already exist, and variety selection.Sanitation measures include planting nematode-free tomato transplants and avoiding the introduction of nematodes on any other type of tranplant stock or with soil
  5. Fusarium wilt is a soilborne fungal disease that spreads in soil, entering plants individually via their root systems. It can also spread when transplants are introduced to the garden, through the coat of infected seeds, or the fungus can hitch a ride on gardening tools, equipment, supplies, gloves, or clothing used around infected soil or plants
  6. Tomato Phytophthora root & fruit rot (157) - Worldwide distribution. On tomato, passionfruit, bele (Fiji). Note, that the oomycete (the water mould is not a fungus) causes a similar disease on capsicum, citrus, papaya, pineapple and tobacco. Roots and lower stems are attacked and plants wilt. Low-hanging fruit show greyish-green rots; at first, the skin stays firm; later, soft rots develop
  7. - Know your existing control measures. • Design mitigation strategy and implement mitigation measures. • Validate and verify mitigation measures, continually review food fraud management system. To characterise the vulnerability of an ingredient to food fraud, the following 3 aspects must be assessed: Vulnerability driven by factor

Common Disease or Fungus in Thornless Raspberry Plants. Thornless raspberries grow relatively quickly when they are unaffected by disease or fungal infection. This climbing plant needs between 6. Basal stem rot (BSR) caused by the species of Ganoderma is one of the most devastating diseases of numerous perennial, coniferous and palmaceous hosts. In forest systems, Ganoderma has an ecological role in the breakdown or delignification of woody plants. Symptoms of BSR disease can take several years to develop, and the presence of the pathogen (such as indicated by fruiting bodies) is often. Wilt, Fusarium and Verticillium. Affects a wide range of vegetables including potatoes, tomatoes, peppers and melons. Symptoms include wilting plants and plant parts that turn yellow. Crop rotation does not control these diseases because so many crops are susceptive. Find resistant cultivars whenever possible. Soil solarization* before planting. chemical control of mango anthracnose in 1958 (2) and 1960 (3). Table 1 lists the major mango fruit, flower and leaf, stem, and root diseases described in the literature. Those reported from Hawaii are identified with an asterisk. The two major diseases of mango in Hawaii are anthracnose and powdery mildew. Anthracnos Fungal Pathogens . Club root of crucifers ( Plasmodiophora brassicae) This disease causes the roots to become swollen and distorted, and limits water uptake. In addition to the root malformation, the leaves yellow and wilt. Its presence often goes undetected as the effect on the aboveground portion of the plant may not become apparent until water stress occurs